Framed, which will be released in November, is set in the "dog-eat-dog underworld of 1980s Soho", publisher Orion said.
The plot will focus on a character called Frankie James - described as "a young man with a lot on his shoulders".
The thriller is said to be loosely based on the 40-year-old, five-time world snooker champion's own life story.
It sees Frankie parentless after his mother disappeared when he was 15, with his father in jail for armed robbery.
After inheriting a snooker club from "one of London's toughest gangsters", the book promises a "sordid world of bent coppers, ruthless mobsters and twisted killers".
In reality, both of O'Sullivan's parents served time in prison - his father was convicted of murder while his mother was jailed for tax evasion, leaving him to take care of his sister.
Orion has previously published the snooker player's autobiography, Running.
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